A timeline of Biblical & Christian history

Major events in Bible times and world history, a chronology of the Genesis 
genealogies, plus important dates affecting the church.

Make sure to read the article associated with this chart
to understand how pre-Abraham dating was derived.

Click for Main Index


Place and Event


4892 B.C.

Adam & Eve Created (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:3)


4762 B.C.

Seth born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:6)


4657 B.C.

Enosh born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:9)


4567 B.C.

Cainan (alt. Kenan) born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:12)


4497 B.C.

Mahalalel born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:15)


4432 B.C.

Jared born (D:Heb/70)(B:Heb/70 Genesis 5:18)


4270 B.C.

Enoch born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/Sam Genesis 5:21)


4205 B.C.

Methuselah born (D:Heb/70)(B:Heb/70 Genesis 5:25)


4018 B.C.

Lamech born (D:Heb)(B:Heb Genesis 5:28)


3962 B.C.

Adam dies. (Genesis 5:4)


3905 B.C.

Enoch is taken by God. (Genesis 5:22-23)


3836 B.C.

Noah born (D:Heb/70)(B:Heb/70/Sam Genesis 5:32)


3334 B.C.

Shem born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/70/Sam Genesis 5:10)


3236 B.C.

Methuselah dies (Genesis 5:26-27). Worldwide Flood begins (Genesis 7:6, 11).


3235 B.C.

Flood Ends. (Genesis 8:13-14)


3234 B.C.

Arphaxad born (D:Heb/Sam) (B:70/Sam Genesis 11:12)


3099 B.C.

Cainan born (D:70)(B:70 Genesis 11:13 Septuagint only) - Luke 3:36 dating 2

Ancient Near East: Early Bronze Age.

3000 B.C.

Sumerian Civilization begins to arise in Mesopotamia (until 2340 B.C.)
Egyptian Civilization begins to arise. Archaic Period. First king Narmer (also called Menes)

Writing arises. Era of written history begins.

2969 B.C.

Salah (alt. Shelah) born (D:Heb/Sam)(B:70/Sam Genesis 11:14)


2952 B.C.

Chinese Imperial Dynasty Arises (First Emperor of China) 5


2888 B.C.

Noah dies. (Genesis 9:28-29)


2839 B.C.

Eber born (D:70/Sam)(B:70/Sam Genesis 11:16)


2734 B.C.

Shem dies. (Genesis 11:11)


2705 B.C.

Peleg born (D:Heb/Sam)(B:70/Sam Genesis 11:18)

Tower of Babel (Genesis 10:25)

2667-2648 B.C. (alt. 2628-2609 B.C.)

Egypt - Reign of Djoser (Zoser), 3rd Dynasty. First stone pyramid: Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

Egyptian Old Kingdom

2613 B.C.

Egypt - King Sneferu builder of first true pyramid. Dies 2589 B.C.


2600 B.C.

Indus Civilization begins to arise in India (until 1800 B.C.)
Minoan Civilization begins to arise on Crete (until 1450 B.C.)


2575 B.C.

Reu born (D:Heb/Sam)(B:70/Sam). Genesis 11:20


2589 B.C.

Egypt - King Khufu (Cheops), Fourth Dynasty. Builder of the Great Pyramid. Dies 2566 B.C.


2558 B.C.

Egypt - King Khafre (Chephren), Fourth Dynasty. Builder of the second largest Giza Pyramid. Dies 2532 B.C.


2532 B.C.

Egypt - King Menkaure (Mykerinus), Fourth Dynasty. Builder of the smallest Giza Pyramid. Dies 2503 B.C.


2443 B.C.

Serug born (D:Heb/Sam)(B:70/Sam). Genesis 11:22


2340 B.C.

Akkadian Empire replaces Sumerians in Mesopotamia (until 2100 B.C)


2313 B.C.

Nahor born (D:Heb/Sam)(B:Sam). Genesis 11:24


2300 B.C.

England (Britain) - Best estimate (by archaeologists and scholars as of 2008) of when Stonehenge was built.


2234 B.C.

Terah born (D:Heb/70/Sam)(B:Heb/70/Sam). Genesis 11:26


2164 B.C.

Ur of the Chaldeans - Abraham born


2160 B.C.


Egyptian First Intermediate Period

2120 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Khety (Kheti) III rules Egypt (until 2070 B.C.) note 1


2089 B.C.

Abraham leaves for Promised Land from Haran (Genesis 12:4)



Abraham & Sarah in Egypt (Goshen, Memphis), return to P.L. (Genesis 12:10-31:1)


2078 B.C.

P.L. - Ishmael born to Abraham (Genesis 16:16)


2065 B.C.

P.L. - Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela destroyed by fire (Genesis 17:1 & Chapters 18-19)


2064 B.C.

P.L. - Isaac born to Abraham (Genesis 18:14, 21:5)


2030 B.C.


Egyptian Middle Kingdom

2004 B.C.

P.L. - Jacob & Esau born to Isaac (Genesis 25:26)


2000 B.C.

Old Babylonian Empire arises (until 1600 B.C.)


1989 B.C.

P.L. - Abraham dies (Genesis 25:7)


1950 B.C.


Ancient Near East: Middle Bronze Age

1941 B.C.

Karnak Temple construction begins in reign of Senusert I (continues until at least 323 BC)


1915 B.C.

P.L. - Joseph born to Jacob in his old age (Genesis 37:3)


1897 B.C.

P.L. - Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt (Gen. 37:2-36)
Egypt - Senusert II becomes pharaoh of Egypt


1884 B.C.

P.L. - Isaac dies (Genesis 35:28-29).
Egypt - Joseph enters service of pharaoh (Genesis 41:46)


1878 B.C.

Egypt - Senusret III (alt. Sesostris III) pharaoh of Egypt until 1840 B.C.


1873 B.C.

Jacob moves family to the Land of Goshen in Egypt (Genesis 47:28)


1860 B.C.

Egypt - Amenemhet III becomes co-regent with father Senusret III.


1857 B.C.

Egypt - Jacob dies, embalmed, buried in P.L. (Genesis 47:28, 50:1)


1840 B.C.

Egypt - Senusret III dies. Amenemhet III alone is pharaoh
Nation of Israel enslaved in Egypt (Genesis 15:13, Acts 7:6)


1814 B.C.

Egypt - Amenemhet IV is pharaoh


1806 B.C.

Egypt - Sobekneferu (alt Neferusobek, Sobeknefru) becomes first known female pharaoh of Egypt. She was wife of Amenemhet IV (also his sister and daughter of Pharaoh Amenemhat III)


1805 B.C.

Egypt - Joseph dies 110 yro, embalmed, in coffin (Genesis 50:26)


1802 B.C.

Egypt - Sobekneferu dies as last of 12th Dynasty and Middle Kingdom. A new pharaoh arises that doesn't know Joseph (Exodus 1:6-9). Likely the very next dynasty, which had many competing and short lived rulers, or perhaps the later Hyksos.


1783 B.C.

Egypt - Period of the Hyksos rulers - capital city at Avaris

Egyptian Second Intermediate Period

1600 B.C.

Hittite Empire arises (until 1193 B.C.)
Mycenaean civilization arises in Greece


1570 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Ahmose I & wife Nefertiri (alt. Nefertari) - 18th Dynasty begins. He defeats Hyksos by taking Avaris

Egyptian New Kingdom

1550 B.C.


Ancient Near East: Late Bronze Age I

1546 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Amenhotep I (alt. Amenophis I), son of Ahmose & Nefertiri. Major construction at Karnak temple at Luxor.


1526 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Thutmose I (alt. Tuthmosis I) & wife Ahmose


1522 B.C.

Moses born in Egypt (Deuteronomy 34:7). Rescue most likely by Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I and Ahmose (Exodus 2:5-10).


1514 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Thutmose II (alt. Tuthmosis II). Marries his half sister Hatshepsut, she reigns with him effectively as co-regent.


1504 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Thutmose III and Queen Hatshepsut rule Egypt (co-regency, though power rests with her). note 3


1482 B.C.

Moses flees to Midian (Acts 7:23) to escape the wrath of Thutmose III (Exodus 2:11-15). Pharaoh Thutmose III now rules Egypt alone, subsequently destroying most traces of Hatshepsut.


1450 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Amenhotep II (alt. Amenophis II). He was not the oldest son of Thutmose III. Bloodthirsty; liked hand to hand combat, led troops into battle with howls of rage.


1446 B.C.

Egypt - Moses returns and confronts Amenhotep II (Exodus 4:18-5:1). Exodus of Israel begins (1 Kings 6:1; Exodus 12:40-41) note 3. Scripture does not state that Pharaoh was killed at this time (read about it here)..



Sinai (Marah, Elim, Rephidim, Mount Sinai, etc.) - Israel in wilderness 40 years (Exodus 16:35). A timeline of stops on the Exodus is here.


1424 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Thutmose IV (alt. Tuthmosis IV) reigns, son of Amenhotep II and lesser wife Tiaa. He was not the oldest son. Had dream at the sphinx that he would rule - recorded on stele there.


1414 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Amenhotep III (alt. Amenophis III). The clossi of Memnon are all that remains of his temple near Thebes.


1402 B.C.

Israel - Moses writes and teaches the book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 1:1, 5) in land of Moab. Moses dies at Mount Nebo at 120 yro (Deuteronomy 34:7).


1401 B.C.

Israel - Conquests of Joshua in Promised Land begin. Battle of Jericho.


1400 B.C.


Ancient Near East: Late Bronze Age II

1378 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV & queen Nefertiti. Changes his name to Akhenaten. Worships one god, Aten, the disk of the rising son. Bans worship of other gods. Makes new capital city of Akhenaten.


1361 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Smenkhkare.


1360 B.C.

Egypt - Queen Neferneferuaten is Pharaoh. She may have been the daughter of Akhenaten and/or wife of Smenkhkare.


1358 B.C.

Egypt - Boy king, 8 or 9 years old, Pharaoh Tutankhamen (alt. Tutankhamun) rules until 1349 B.C. Changed his name from Tutankhaten and restored worship of other gods especially Amen at Karnak temple.


1350 B.C.

Israel - (this date is plus or minus 10 years and cannot be conclusively derived from Scriptures. Consider Numbers 11:28, Joshua 24:29, and Judges 2:8-10)

Period of the Judges in Israel

1301 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Rameses II rules Egypt. This third king of the 19th dynasty is often incorrectly identified as the Pharaoh of the exodus.


1235 B.C.

Egypt - Pharaoh Merneptah, son of Ramesses II, rules until 1225. The Merneptah victory stele of 1230 B.C. lists Israel note 2


1200 B.C.


Ancient Near East: Iron Age I

1194-1184 B.C.

Trojan War (later legends appears based in the actual destruction of Troy VIIa at this time)


1170 B.C.

Assyrian Empire arises (until 612 B.C.)


1140 B.C.

Beth Shean is destroyed by fire (archaeology circa 1140~1130)


1100 B.C.

Israel - Jephthah is Judge (Judges 11:26)


1070 B.C.


Egyptian Third Intermediate Period

1050 B.C.

Israel - Saul becomes first king (Acts 13:21), anointed by Samuel the last judge and prophet.

Period of the Monarchy in Israel


Israel - David kills Goliath at the Valley of Elah.



Israel - David hides from Saul at En Gedi.


1010 B.C.

Israel - King Saul dies, body hung at Beth Shan. David becomes king of Judah
Ish-bosheth becomes king of Israel


1003 B.C.

Israel - David becomes king of unified kingdom


1000 B.C.


Ancient Near East: Iron Age II

970 B.C.

Israel - Solomon becomes king


967 B.C.

Israel - First temple, built by Solomon in Jerusalem (1 Kings 6:1; 2 Chronicles 3:1-2)


931 B.C.

Israel (North) - Jeroboam king. Begins worship of golden calf at Dan and Bethel.
Judah (South) - Rehoboam, son of Solomon, king.

Divided kingdom in Israel

926 B.C.

Pharaoh Shishak (Sheshonq I, 22nd Dynasty, ruled 945-924 B.C.) sacks Jerusalem (1 Kings 14:25-26; 2 Chronicles 12:3-4) and other Israeli fortified cities including Arad and Megiddo.


914 B.C.

Judah (S) - Rehoboam dies, Abijah king only next three years


912 B.C.

Judah (S) - Asa is king


885 B.C.

Israel (N) - Omri is king

Ashurnasirpal II is king of Assyria (885 B.C. - 860 B.C.)

Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 B.C.). Some date this empire's roots to 934 B.C. others start dating here in 885 B.C.

874 B.C.

Israel (N) - Omri dies, Ahab is king


871 B.C.

Judah (S) - Asa dies, Jehoshaphat is king



Israel - Elijah's confrontation with prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:18-39)


853 B.C.

Israel (N) - Ahab dies


850 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Obadiah is written


847 B.C.

Judah (S) - Jehoshaphat dies


846 B.C.

Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone) created by Mesha, king of Moab. Celebrating victory over Israel (re 2 Kings 3).


793 B.C.

Israel (N) - Jeroboam II is king


792 B.C.

Judah (S) - Uzziah is king (10 years or more as co-regent with Amaziah)



Israel (N) - Jonah receives call to Ninevah. Flees via ship from Joppa. Swallowed by fish. Goes to Ninevah. (2 Kings 14:25)

First Olympic Games 776 B.C.

753 B.C.

Israel (N) - Jeroboam II dies


750 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Jonah is written


750 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Amos is written


743 B.C.

Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III attacks Damascus and subsequently northern Israel, including Hazor (as late as 732 B.C.)


740 B.C.

Judah (S) - Uzziah dies (2 Kings 15:2). Year of Isaiah's vision. (Isaiah 6:1)
Israel (N) - First captives taken to Assyria by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chronicles 5:26)


732 B.C.

Judah (S) - Ahaz is king.


725 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Hosea is written


722 B.C.

Israel (N) - Kingdom falls to Sargon II of Assyria. Exile (2 Kings 17:3-6; 18:9-10)


716 B.C.

Judah (S) - Ahaz dies (2 Kings 16:2). Hezekiah is king.


705 B.C.

Judah (S) - Rebels against Assyrian king Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:7)


701 B.C.

Judah (S) - Hezekiah builds water tunnel (2 Kings 20:20)


690 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Micah is written


687 B.C.

Judah (S) - Hezekiah dies (2 Kings 18:2). Manasseh is king


680 B.C.

Esarhaddon is the ruler of Assyria (680-669 B.C.)


668 B.C.

Ashurbanipal is the ruler of Assyria (668-633 B.C.)


663 B.C.

Egypt - Thebes is plundered and destroyed by the Assyrians (Nahum 3:8-10)


650 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Nahum is written


648 B.C.

Persian Empire arises (until 330 B.C.)


642 B.C.

Judah (S) - Manasseh dies.


640 B.C.

Judah (S) - Josiah is king. (2 Kings 22:1)


612 B.C.

New Babylonian Empire arises (until 539 B.C.). Ninevah falls to Babylon.

Neo-Babylonian Empire (626-539 B.C.)

610 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Zephaniah is written


609 B.C.

Judah (S) - Josiah dies fighting Egyptian Pharaoh Neco at Megiddo. (2 Chronicles 34:1)


606 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Habakkuk is written


605 B.C.

Judah (S) - Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon takes hostages (See Daniel 1:1, this included Daniel. His dream interpretation revealed kingdoms to come.)


598 B.C.

Judah (S) - Jehoiakim deposed by Nebuchadnezzar, Jehoiachin has very brief and wicked reign before suffering the same fate (2 Kings 24:8).  Details on last kings.


588 B.C.

Judah (S) - Siege of Jerusalem (Jeremiah is prophet, circa 645-575 B.C.)


587/586 B.C.

Judah (S) - Falls to Babylon. Exile to Babylon (2 Kings 25:8-21) - Last ancient king of Judah


539 B.C.

Babylon - Falls to Persia.  According to the Nabonidus Chronicle this happened in 16th of Tishri, 539 B.C.  (Tishri = September/October).  Daniel 5:31

Persian Empire [Achaemenid Empire] (550-330 BC)

537 B.C.

Persian king Cyrus decrees temple to be rebuilt. (Ezra 6:2-5)


534 B.C.

Israel - Work on the temple stops


525 B.C.

Persia conquers Egypt.


521 B.C.

Darius the Mede rules over Persian Empire


520 B.C.

Israel - Work on the temple resumes under King Darius, spurred by Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 5:1 - 6:14)

Minor Prophet: Book of Haggai is written


516 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Zechariah is written


515 B.C.

Israel - Temple completed and dedicated in 6th year of Darius (Ezra 6:15)


500 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Book of Joel is written


486 B.C.

Xerxes rules over Persian Empire from Susa (Esther 1:2)


483 B.C.

Xerxes banishes Queen Vashti (Esther 1:2-21)


478 B.C.

Esther becomes queen of Persian Empire, wife of Xerxes (Esther 2:16-17)


465 B.C.

Artaxerxes I rules over Persian Empire


458 B.C.

Israel - Ezra brings more exiles back from Babylon. (Ezra 7:11-26)



Nabateans fully control Edomite territory - based in Petra (Selah)


447-432 B.C.

Greece - Parthenon was built in Athens.


446 B.C.

Israel - Nehemiah goes to Jerusalem to rebuild walls. (Nehemiah 2)


432 B.C.

Israel - Nehemiah's second visit to Jerusalem (Nehemiah 13:6-7)


420 B.C. note 4

Minor Prophet: Last Book of the Old Testament is written... Malachi


336 B.C.

Alexander the Great rules - Alexander's Empire (until 323 B.C.)

Greek Empire

333 B.C.

Alexander the Great defeats Darius III (Persian Empire) in Battleof Issus


332 B.C.

Egypt - Alexander the Great rules. Also controls region of Israel but allows some self rule.

Ancient Near East: Hellenistic Period

305 B.C.

Egypt - Ptolemy I rules (until 285 B.C.)

Ptolemaic dynasty (Hellenistic) rule Egypt (until 30 B.C.).

283 B.C.

Septuagint Translation of Scriptures from Hebrew to Greek begins


196 B.C.

Rosetta Stone is created, reign of Ptolemy V in Egypt


167 B.C.

Israel - Seleucid King, Antiochus IV, desecrates the temple in Jerusalem and sacrifices a pig. Maccabean revolt begins led by three sons of the priest Mattathias: Judas, Jonathan, and Simon

Seleucid Empire (Hellenistic) successor state of Alexander the Great. (323 to 63 B.C.) Eclipse Ptolemies in power 217 B.C.

166 B.C.

Israel - Hasmonean Period

Hasmonean Dynasty (166-37 B.C.)

165 B.C.

Israel - Temple rededicated/temple sacrifices restored
(Hasmonean ruler) Judas Maccabee (alt. Maccabaeus)


160 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Jonathan Apphus


141 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Simon Thassis


134 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) John Hyracanus


105 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Aristobulus I


104 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Alexander Jannaeus


76 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Alexandra Salome (queen!) until 67 B.C.


67 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Aristobulus II


63 B.C.

Israel - Roman general Pompey conquers Jerusalem.
(Hasmonean ruler) Hyrcanus II appeals to Rome, is reinstated as High Priest and Ethnarch. Much power fell to his adviser Antipater the Idumaean.

Roman period begins (Israel is a protectorate of Rome)

51 B.C.

Egypt - Cleopatra rules (until 30 B.C.)


47 B.C.

Israel - Herod "the Great", second son of Antipater the Idumaean, is Governor of Galilee (for Rome)


44 B.C.

Rome - Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides (15) of March


40 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean ruler) Antigonus. Last real Hasmonean ruler. Seized Jerusalem with Parthian support. Sent his uncle Hyrcanus II to Babylon in chains (after mutilating his ears, rendering him ineligible for office of High Priest).


37 B.C.

Israel - Herod "the Great" becomes king of the Jews (client king of Rome). Herod hands over Antigonus to Rome for execution.

Herodian Dynasty (37 B.C.-100 A.D.)

36 B.C.

Israel - (Hasmonean) Aristobulus III is only High Priest. Herod has him drowned at Jericho in 35 B.C., fearing his potential threat and lineage to govern.


27 B.C.

Rome - Caesar Augustus emperor of Rome

Roman Empire (27 B.C.-476 A.D. Fall of Western Empire)

20 B.C.

Israel - King Herod begins work on rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem


5 B.C.

Israel - Fulfilling prophecy: Birth of Jesus in Bethlehem (Possibly late 6 B.C.)


4 B.C.

Israel - Herod "the Great" dies in the Spring (between March 12 and April 11)


9 A.D.

Jesus goes up to Jerusalem from Nazareth, for the Passover, with his parents (Luke 2:41-51)


14 A.D.

Rome - Caesar Augustus dies. Tiberius rules 14-37 A.D.


16 A.D.

Israel [Map] - City of Tiberius founded.


18 A.D.

Israel [Map] - Joseph Caiaphas becomes high priest (until 36 or early 37 A.D.).


26 A.D.

Israel [Map] - Pontius Pilate appointed governor of Judea (until 36 A.D.)


28 A.D.

Israel - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1-2). Also the year of the first ministry Passover of Jesus in Jerusalem (John 2:13).


28 A.D.

Israel - Herod Antipas begins affair with his brother Philip's wife, leading to divorce of his wife (daughter of the Nabatean king Aretas IV), subsequently marries Herodias, his brother's wife and niece.


30 A.D.

Israel - Jesus celebrates the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah) in Jerusalem; winter (early December); see John 10:22. Feast remembers events of 165 B.C.


31 A.D.

Israel [Map] - Jesus in Garden of Gethsemane; trials before Caiaphas, Herod, Pilate; Death, Burial, Resurrection during Passover.


35 A.D.

Saul of Tarsus (later the Apostle Paul) meets Jesus on the road to Damascus.


39 A.D.

Herod Antipas deposed by the emperor Caligula and sent to Gaul in exile.


43 A.D.

Invasion of Britian by the Romans


44 A.D.

Events of Acts 12 by Herod Agrippa I in Jerusalem: the apostle James (brother of John) put to death with the sword; Peter arrested.


48 A.D.

Church Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) - Agreed that a Gentile did not have to become a Jew, or be circumcised, in order to be a Christian.


49 A.D.

London, England, was founded by the Romans as Londinium

Rome - Emperor Claudius orders Jews to leave Rome (referenced in Acts 18:1-3).


50 A.D.

Greece - Paul preaches on Mars Hill in Athens


51 A.D.

Paul goes to Corinth and stays with Aquila and Priscilla (Acts 18:1)


52 A.D.

Israel - Herod Agrippa II given northeastern Galilee. Given limited say in Jerusalem regarding the temple. Had palace in Jerusalem and subsequently another at Caesarea Philippi (calling it Neronias after Nero).


54 A.D.

Rome - Nero becomes emperor


56 A.D.

Paul writes first letter to the church in Corinth while in Ephesus. (1 Corinthians 15:8)


57 A.D.

Israel - Paul imprisoned at Caesarea Maritima


59 A.D.

Israel - Paul before Festus (procurator of Judea 58-62 A.D.) and Agrippa II, appeals to Caesar (Acts 24:27)


60-61 A.D.

Paul writes Colossians and Ephesians from prison in Rome


62 A.D.

Israel - James, brother of Jesus, martyred in Jerusalem by the High Priest Ananias


64 A.D.

Rome - Rome Burns (accidental fire)


66 A.D.

Israel - First Jewish revolt begins. Vespasian sent to quell rebellion.


67 A.D.

Israel - Christians abandon Jerusalem and flee to Pella of the Decapolis as a refuge. Josephus, commander of the Galilean forces in Galilee, surrenders to the Romans. Subsequently becomes historian and apologist for the Jews.


68 A.D.

Rome - Paul beheaded in Rome by Nero ("in the fourteenth year of Nero" - Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men, Chapter 5 - Paul)

Rome - Emperor Nero dies in June (commits suicide). After uncertainty Vespasian becomes Emperor (69-79 A.D.)


70 A.D.

Israel - Temple destroyed by Titus (August 10th or 9th of Av). Jerusalem surrenders after six month siege, much of Jerusalem destroyed. Almost 100 thousand Jews sold into slavery by Romans.


73 A.D.

Israel - Masada falls. 967 Jewish Zealots commit mass suicide. Two women, five children only survivors who hid in a cistern.


78 A.D.

Rome - Peter martyred (traditional sources)


79 A.D.

Rome - Titus becomes Emperor (79-81 A.D.)


81 A.D.

Rome - Domitian becomes Emperor (81-96 A.D.)

Major Persecution of Christians (81-96 A.D.)

95 A.D.

Apostle John banished to Patmos. Last living apostle. Writes Revelation, speaks of Armageddon. Dies circa 100 A.D.


98 A.D.

Timothy stoned to death at Ephesus (traditional sources)


100 A.D.

Israel - Herod Agrippa II dies. Last ruling descendant of Herod the Great


108 A.D.

Church leader Polycarp (born 69 A.D.), who learned from the Apostle John, writes his letter to the Philippians.


130 A.D.

Emperor Hadrian (117-138 A.D.) rebuilds Jerusalem and renames it Aelia Capitolina

Roman Empire at largest extent in 117 A.D.

132 A.D.

Israel - Second Jewish revolt/Bar Kokhba Revolt - (132-135 A.D.)


155 A.D.

Polycarp burned at the stake in Smyrna


180 A.D.

Irenaeus, who learned from Polycarp, writes "Against Heresies"


312 A.D.

Constantine (the Great, 272-337), emperor of Eastern Empire, kills emperor of Western Empire. Professes conversion to Christianity after seeing a vision.


313 A.D.

Constantine issues Edict of Milan granting legal status to Christians and restoring property.

Roman Christian Era

325 A.D.

Eusebius of Caesarea finishes his Church History (lived 275 - 339 A.D.).
First Council of Nicea formulates the Nicene Creed. Included churches from the east and west - condemned Arian heresy.


336 A.D.

First calendar to show date of Christmas on December 25th in western church (first certain celebration not until 354 A.D.)


337 A.D.

Christianity officially becomes state religion of Rome. Constantine is finally baptised as a Christian (by an heretical Arian priest) just prior to his death.


367 A.D.

Athanasius of Alexandria (lived circa 296-373 A.D.), in his festal letter, listed the books of the New Testament; the 27 books still recognized today. Using an old Jewish grouping method he also lists 22 books of the Old Testament which correspond to our 39 of today. He notes some of the apocryphal books but makes sure to emphasize they are not Scriptures, though important.


381 A.D.

First Council of Constantinople - included churches from the east and west. Condemned heresy of Macedonius and reaffirmed doctrine of the trinity.


387 A.D.

Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430 A.D) is baptized, having converted to Christianity. Becomes leading church theologian. Opposes Pelagius.


393 A.D.

Synod of Hippo (modern Annaba, Algeria) - specifically listed their recognized books of Scriptures (matching our 27 books of the NT and all 39 of the OT, plus a few of the so-called OT apocrypha). Numerous synods and councils were held at Hippo.

Last Ancient Olympic Games

395 A.D.

Roman Empire divides again between the east and west. Western (Latin) church based in Rome, eastern church (Orthodox) based in Constantinople


397 A.D.

Synod of Carthage (Tunisia; 397 A.D.). Matching the synod of Hippo in 393 A.D., it again specifically listed recognized books of Scriptures. As with the synods of Hippo, some of the synods at Carthage were also called councils; for example that of 418 was called "a council of Africa" by Augustine.


405 A.D.

Jerome - Eusebius S. Hieronymus (347-420 A.D.), working at Bethlehem, completes his Vulgate translation of the Bible into Latin.


412 A.D.

Theodosian Walls (commissioned by Emperor Theodosius II) built as second line of defence around Constantinople (completed in 413 A.D.)


413 A.D.

Augustine of Hippo (354-430 A.D.) starts his major work: The City of God. Completed in 426 A.D.


418 A.D.

Pelagius (354-420 A.D.), a British monk, is excommunicated. He denied original sin, claiming men could do good on their own. This Council of Carthage affirmed sixteen previous synods at Carthage, one at Milevis, and one at Hippo. It denounced the Pelagian heresy on original sin, the human nature, and grace; specifically adopting the opposing view espoused by Augustine. Additionally it (and the synods of 419 & 424) protested the Roman church's increasing claims of judicial jurisdiction and supremacy over the African church.


431 A.D.

Council of Ephesus - included churches from the east and west. Condemned Nestorianism and reaffirmed that Christ was one person who was fully human and fully God. Also condemned Pelagius and affirmed the Council of Carthage in 418 A.D.


440 A.D.

Earliest date for the Athanasian Creed. Written by an anonymous author in Gaul (not St. Athanasius as traditionally claimed).


451 A.D.

Council of Chalcedon (in Thessalonica) issues the Chalcedonian Creed - included churches of the east and west. Condemned Monophysitism, the teaching that Christ had only one nature and affirmed that Christ was both God and man.


476 A.D.

Western Roman Empire declared redundant.  Last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, allowed to retire; considered so insignificant that he wasn't worth assassinating. Roman Catholic church remains a primary religious authority in the west.


494 A.D.

St. Valentine's Day set as February 14th by the Roman Catholic pope Gelasius I.


550 A.D.

Byzantine Empire at greatest extent


553 A.D.

Second Council of Constantinople - included churches of the east and a few from the west (only 6 bishops). Condemned the teachings of Nestorius again (as did the council in 431 A.D.), reafirmed decisions of earlier councils.


610 A.D.

Muhammad (alt. Mohammed, 570-632 A.D.) claims to receive his first revelations from God (Allah) - basis of Qur'an (alt. Koran). Beginning of Islam which believes the Bible has been corrupted.


622 A.D.

Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina (Hijra)


635 A.D.

Muslim conquest of Damascus


636 A.D.

Battle of Yarmuk gives Muslims controls over Syria. Mulsims defeat Persians in battle of Qadisiya


637 A.D.

Muslims enter Jerusalem. The city surrendered. (Still a few decades before Jerusalem is declared to be the third holiest city of Islam and identified as the place where Muhammad reached in his night voyage and ascended into heaven.)


642 A.D.

Muslims capture Alexandria, Egypt


643 A.D.

Muslim conquest of Azerbaijan


647 A.D.

First Arab Muslim invasion of North Africa


651 A.D.

Muslims complete conquest of Persia


661 A.D.

Muslim Umayyad Caliphate (alt. Omayyad Caliphate) created, based in Damascus


691 A.D.

The Muslim Dome of the Rock is completed on the temple mount in Jerusalem. Built by the Umayyad Caliphate.


726 A.D.

Byzantine Emperor, Leo III the Isaurian (683-741 A.D., emperor from 717-741 A.D.), banned the veneration of all icons including religious painting, mosaics, and statutes.

First Orthodox Iconoclastic Period

730 A.D.

Emperor Leo III issues second decree now ordering removal or destruction of all images and icons in churches. John of Damascus (675/676-749/753 A.D.) writes in defense of icons and images. Roman Catholic pope Gregory II (pope from 715-731 A.D.) holds council to anathematize and excommunicate all iconoclasts.


732 A.D.

Roman Catholic pope Gregory III (pope from 731-741 A.D.) holds council to reconfirm excommunication of all iconoclasts.


750 A.D.

Muslim Abbasid Caliphate overthrew Umayyad Caliphate; based in Haran Turkey, moves to Baghdad in 762 A.D.


753 A.D.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine V (718-775, emperor 741-775 A.D) reconfirms iconoclastic ban on icons and images.


754 A.D.

Orthodox synod approves iconoclastic policies of the Emperor. Reaffirms that icons of the Virgin Mary and the Saints are idols.


787 A.D.

Byzantine Empress Irene (wife of the late Leo IV and regent for her young son) overturned all iconoclastic decrees, a decision reflected by the Seventh Ecumenical Council (also called the Second Council of Nicea).

End of First Orthodox Iconoclastic Period

800 A.D.

Pope Leo III (Roman Catholic pope from 795-816 A.D.) presides over the coronation of Charlemagne (king of the Franks from 768 A.D. onward) as Roman Emperor.


815 A.D.

Byzantine Emperor Leo V (Alt. Leo the Armenian, 775-820 A.D., reigned 813-820 A.D) renews iconoclastic decrees

Second Orthodox Iconoclastic Period

843 A.D.

Byzantine Empress Theodora, mother and regent of Michael III (836-867 A.D., reigned 842-867 A.D. who was only a child when he assumed the throne) abandoned all iconoclastic policies.

End of Second Orthodox Iconoclastic Period

1054 A.D.

Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope of Rome excommunicate each other. Beginning of Great Schism of Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic) Churches. Dispute over the Holy Spirit.

Great Schism of the Eastern and Western Church

1096-1099 A.D.

First Roman Catholic Crusade against Muslim invaders in the east, includes massacre of Jews in Europe and plundering of Jerusalem and burning of Jews in Jerusalem in a synagogue. Professed to be helping the Byzantine (Eastern) Church and Empire.


1187 A.D.

Roman Catholic Crusaders defeated by Saladin (died 1193 A.D.) at the Battle of Hattin, enables Muslims to retake Jerusalem


1199 A.D.

Roman Catholic Inquisition started by Pope Innocent III (expanded by Pope Gregory IX in 1233, plus use of torture to get confessions by Pope Innocent IV in 1252).


1203-1204 A.D.

The Roman Catholic Crusaders of the fourth crusade sack Chalcedon (1203), Chrysopolis (1203), and Constantinople (1204)- capital of the Byzantine (Eastern) Church and Empire. Thousands dead and many tens of thousands homeless. Distrust solidifies the Great Schism.


1227 A.D.

Chapter divisons added to Bible, for the first time, by professor Stephen Langton of the University of Paris.


1268 A.D.

Muslims (Mamluk's) capture the city of Antioch (in modern Turkey), where believers had first been called Christians (Acts 11:26)


1291 A.D.

Muslims capture the city of Acre (northern Mediterranean Israel) in a bloody seige. Acre had been then a crusader city since 1191 A.D.


1305 A.D.

The Roman Catholic Church moved the Papacy to Avignon (modern-day France). During this period seven so-called Bishops of Rome were highly influenced by French Kings. The papacy (Gregory XI) returned to Rome in 1377.

Roman Catholic Papacy in Avignon (so-called Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy)

1347 A.D.

The Black Death ravages Europe for the first time

The loose start of the Renaissance in Europe

1377 A.D.

The papacy of the Roman Catholic Church returned to Rome.

End of Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy

1378 A.D.

Competing claims divide the Roman Catholic Church. During this period two and sometimes three popes ruled (in Rome and Avignon) complete with their own followings, College of Cardinals, and administrative offices.

Western Schism: Period of multiple rival Roman Catholic Popes

1380 A.D.

Early reformer John Wycliffe (1328-1384 A.D.) begins first English translation of the Bible. The Roman Catholic church declared him a heretic in 1380 and again in 1382. His followers become known as Lollards


1415 A.D.

Early reformer Jon Hus (1373-1415) burned at stake by Roman Catholic church for holding to the authority of the Bible over even the Pope. The Council of Constance again declared John Wycliffe (on May 4) a heretic and decreed that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed and destroyed (which was actually done 12 years later).


1417 A.D.


End of Western Schism of the Roman Catholic Popes

1438 A.D.

Johann Gutenberg (1398-1468) invents the printing press


1453 A.D.

Byzantine (Eastern) Empire falls. Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks, its Theodosian Walls breached by Mehmet the Conqueror.


1455 A.D.

Johann Gutenberg (1398-1468) publishes the Gutenburg Bible, the first Bible printed with movable type. Paves the way for cheap Bibles for all.


1504 A.D.

Michelangelo completes the statue David, the most famous statue of the Renaissance


1505 A.D.

Leonardo DaVinci comeplete the Mona Lisa, arguably the most famous painting of the Renaissance


1508 A.D.

Michelangelo paints roof of Sistine Chapel, finishing in 1512 A.D.


1509 A.D.

Henry VIII succeeds to power in England


1516 A.D.

Novum Instrumentum omne was the first published New Testament in Greek -- prepared by Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536).  Four editions followed: 1519, 1522, 1527, and 1536.


1517 A.D.

Martin Luther (1483-1546) posts his 95 Theses on October 31st, which sparked the Protestant Reformation.

Protestant Era

1518 A.D.

Swiss Reformation begins under Ulrich Zwingli.


1522 A.D.

Martin Luther publishes his New Testament in German, translated from Eramus' Greek second edition (1519).


1525-34 A.D.

William Tyndale (circa 1494 – 1536) translates New Testament from the third Greek text of Erasmus (1522)


1536 A.D.

John Calvin (1509-1564) publishes first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Some of his teachings later become known as Calvinism.


1545-1563 A.D.

Council of Trent formulates official Roman Catholic church doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation and to oppose the Five Reformation Solas.


1551 A.D.

Printer Robert Stephanus numbered the verses of the NT, while riding on horseback from Paris to Lyons.


1582 A.D.

Gregorian calendar introduced in all Roman Catholic countries. Slowly becomes most widely used calendar.


1603 A.D.

Shakespeare publishes Hamlet (his major works span from Henry VI in 1590 to Henry VIII in 1623).

Loose end of the Renaissance in Europe

1611 A.D.

King James Bible (AV) is published.  The work of 47 Church of England scholars from 1604-1611. Based on the third Greek text of Erasmus (1522).


1730 A.D.

The Great Awakening - Revival events through the American colonies spanned approximately a three decade period ending in 1760. Some date the start to a lecture by Jonathan Edwards in Boston in 1731 emphasizing God's absolute sovereignty in the work of salvation.


1738 A.D.

Methodist Church founded by John Wesley (1703-1791) and George Whitefield (1714-1770), both major figures in the Great Awakening..


1741 A.D.

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) preaches his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."


1769 A.D.

Benjamin Blayney, at Oxford, extensively re-edited the King James Bible.  Modern KJV Bibles commonly use this Oxford Standard Edition.


1799 A.D.

Rosetta Stone is rediscovered in Egypt.


1800 A.D.

The Second Great Awakening - Approximate start of revival events in the United States, though some date the beginning up to 10 years earlier. Events spanned approximately four decades, loosely ending around 1840.


1816 A.D.

American Bible Society founded.


1824 A.D.

Charles G. Finney (1792-1875) was ordained. He became "The Father of Modern Revivalism" during the "Second Great Awakening." He denied God's control over the destiny of human beings and assured everyone as "moral free agents" that they could obtain salvation through their own efforts.


1830 A.D.

Mormon "church" (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) established by Joseph Smith (1805-1844), author of the Book of Mormon. (A byproduct of the revivalism and restorationism movements of the Second Great Awakening).


1871 A.D.

Jehovah's Witnesses founded by Charles Taze Russell (started forerunner of The Watchtower magazine in 1879).


1948 A.D.

Israel becomes a nation again.


1962-1965 A.D.

The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly called Vatican II, was held. Many thought this council was proof that the Roman Catholic Church could (and was) changing.


1967 A.D.

Jerusalem captured by Israel during the six day war.


Chart End Notes:

This chart was created by Brent MacDonald, (c)2006-2017. It utilizes well attested dates from archaeology and historical sources, combined with calculated dates based upon Scriptures. Holding a high view of Scriptures and the timeframes referenced therein, this provides an early date for the Exodus and likewise the life of Abraham, regardless of some modern scholarship that revises these dates later by a few hundred years. Lesser disputes exist regarding some of these dates, potentially revising them by a year or two or slightly more, due to the imprecise nature of dating historical events. First and last years of the reigns of some rulers are problematic, as they may include only a partial year, or overlap with a subsequent or successive ruler.

Historical dates prior to Abraham (note double bar dividing the table) may have to be revised, especially those based on archaeology. This associated article establishes how dating was derived for pre-Abraham ancestors. Even early Egyptian dates, often presented as quite reliable, are highly speculative and based on lists with legendary and overlapping elements. Lack of written records has often led to utilizing problematic dating methods, including radiometric dating, for pre-historic periods. Evolutionary bias also tends to exaggerate prehistorical evidences. The Biblical text and genealogies certainly point to a very young age for all of earth's history.

1. (First Intermediate Period, 9th and 10th Dynasties: Khety III wrote his son and successor Merekare [Merikare] that he should make peace with Thebes, defend the borders as well as dominate the Asiatics and "do not reduce nobles in their possessions.")

2. This was around the time, or just following the time of Gideon's death. A few decades later, following a period of trouble from the Philistines and Ammonites (Judges 10:7), God's list of kingdoms that he used to oppress Israel (to cause them to turn back to Him) included Egypt in the list before the Ammonites and Philistines. This was likely a reference to the expedition of Merneptah which would have still been remembered by those living at that time.

3. While we did not arrive at an exact match with Coffman's date for the exodus (by four years), this comment on a 15th century B.C. dating for the exodus is notable. His notes on the inaccuracy of dating Pharaohs is likewise very true.

All scholars admit that all Egyptian dates should be viewed as plus or minus 50 years. Further proof of the early Exodus in 1446 B.C. is found in the Tel el-Amarna letters, in which there is a letter written from Palestine to Amenhotep III, complaining that the Hebrews were taking over the land; and that is calculated to have been in the year 1391 B.C., the date when Amenhotep III succeeded Tuthmosis IV as Pharaoh! If the critics are correct in dating the Exodus two hundred years after it actually happened, how were the Hebrews in Palestine in 1391 B.C.? This is by no means all of the rapidly expanding evidence of the accuracy of the early date for the Exodus, but we consider this far more than enough to establish it as certain. (Article on 1 Kings 6:1, Coffman's Bible Commentary, Copyright © 1971-1993 by ACU Press, Abilene Christian University. All rights reserved.)

A perusal of seven scholars on one particular 18th dynasty pharaoh resulted in five differing sets of dates. In specific, as noted by one author, Queen Hatchepsut's reign is variously dated to: 1504-1482 BC, 1490/88-1468 BC, 1479-1457 BC, 1473-1458 BC (Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh by Joyce Tyldesley).

4. Dating of when the books of the Twelve Minor Prophets were written is based on internal evidences within each book. As this method often cannot arrive at a specific year, rather tending towards a range of years, the dating used for clarity in this chart is the most probable if specific, or the latest possible if a range is indicated. For more details on dating the minor prophets, refer to the associated article linked to this time line.

5. A comprehensive history of China, without gaps, with early entries appearing to have been written by contemporary authors and no appearance of incorporating myths or legends was first documented by a Roman Catholic (Jesuit) missionary, Martino Martini, who was sent to China in the 1650s.  A book published in 1729, in Paris, Observations mathématiques, astronomiques, geographiques, chronologiques, et physiques, tirées des anciens livres chinois; ou faites nouvellement aux Indes et a la Chine, notes that known eclipses line up with this ancient Chinese history.


On this timeline I have marked which manuscript families agree for each individual in regards to their death (ie. D: ) and their age when they begot an heir (ie. B: ). Abbreviations are: Heb=Masoretic/Hebrew; 70 = Septuagint; Sam=Samaritan.